There is a consensus regarding the drastic and rapid change in the external environment of most living organism. This means that organisms need to maintain a constant internal environment if they must survive through several approaches beginning with regulating their body temperatures, Ph among other factors. This state is what is called homeostasis which is the state at which organisms maintain an optimal internal body condition.
To maintain this state of organs stability among organism, the use of distinct structures has been crucial. Therefore, the science that involves the study of the normal body functions by the various body systems is called Physiology. For instance, given an increase in the temperature for the external environment than the ideal interna temperatures, organisms will try to adopt by these conditions by activating a physiological process that will keep the body from adopting this increment to body temperature courtesy of very specialized cells.
When one or more cell type with common functions come together, they form a tissue, thereafter tissues are combined to from organs which have specialized body functions. The organ system will constitute two or more organs which are working together to provide a common body function. In the vertebrate, their physiological system is made up of eleven major organ systems. These systems are interconnected in some way, but each organ works independent of the other.
The body physiology is covered by what we call the integumentary system, this system consists of skin, hair, nails, sensory receptors, and various glands. Their sole purpose is protecting the internal structures, sense most features of the external environment and helps regulate body temperature. On the other hand, the internally, organs are protected and supported by the skeletal system, which comprises of bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. Indeed, the skeletal system is used for attachment of the muscles that make up the muscular system. The muscles will move the body by also moving the skeleton or else contract to move substances through hollow organs.
The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, this system is used to interpret sensory stimuli and controls the behaviour of the organism to handle the physiological processes together with other systems.
The endocrine system consists of hormone-secreting glands and organs which includes the pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, ovaries, and testes. This system is used for regulating growth, metabolism, and reproduction together with other systems.
The respiratory system directs the exchange of gas that is supplied to the body in form of oxygen then it removes carbon dioxide in the lungs after air has passed through the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchus.
The digestive system is used to process and breaks down food which is taken in through the oral cavity and oesophagus, and then moved through the stomach, small and large intestines before excretion through the rectum and anus. The nutrients will be absorbed in the small and large intestines and then taken to the liver for processing.
The urinary system will handle the body concentrates and also assist to eliminates nitrogenous waste via the kidney, bladder, and urethra. The urinary system is also used to get rid of the body excess water.
The cardiovascular or circulatory system which consists of the heart, blood vessels and blood, is used to delivers oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, while at the same time used in removing carbon dioxide and waste products throughout the body. The lymphatic system is used to maintain the body’s immune response steady with the help of white blood cells or lymphocytes which are stored in red bone marrow. The thymus, lymphatic vessels, thoracic duct, spleen, and lymph nodes are tissue structure that ensure success of activities in the lymphatic system. Finally, the reproductive system is made up of the reproductive cells of organisms. For male organism, testes and the penis make up the reproductive system while in females the uterus, ovaries, and vagina complete the female reproductive system.